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一、概述

简单梳理下Andorid启动流程。

一般操作系统启动流程如下图:

在这里插入图片描述
Android系统启动流程概览:

在这里插入图片描述
system_server服务启动流程

启动过程: Loader -> Kernel -> Native -> Framework -> App

在这里插入图片描述

1.1 Loader层
  1. Boot ROM: 当手机处于关机状态时,长按Power键开机,引导芯片开始从固化在ROM里的预设出代码开始执行,然后加载引导程序到RAM;
  2. Boot Loader:这是启动Android系统之前的引导程序,主要是检查RAM,初始化硬件参数等功能。
1.2 Kernel层
  1. Kernel是指Android内核层,到这里才刚刚开始进入Android系统。

  2. 启动kthreadd进程(pid=2):是Linux系统的内核进程,会创建内核工作线程kworkder,软中断线程ksoftirqd,thermal等内核守护进程。kthreadd进程是所有内核进程的鼻祖。

1.3 Native层

Native层主要包括init孵化来的用户空间的守护进程、HAL层以及开机动画等。启动init进程(pid=1),是Linux系统的用户进程,init进程是所有用户进程的鼻祖。

  1. init进程会孵化出ueventd、logd、healthd、installd、adbd、lmkd等用户守护进程;
  2. init进程还启动servicemanager(binder服务管家)、bootanim(开机动画)等重要服务
  3. init进程孵化出Zygote进程,Zygote进程是Android系统的第一个Java进程(即虚拟机进程),Zygote是所有Java进程的父进程,Zygote进程本身是由init进程孵化而来的。
1.4 Framework层
  1. Zygote进程,是由init进程通过解析init.rc文件后fork生成的,Zygote进程主要包含:
    (1) 加载ZygoteInit类,注册Zygote Socket服务端套接字;
    (2) 加载虚拟机;
    (3) preloadClasses;
    (4) preloadResouces;

  2. System Server进程,是由Zygote进程fork而来,System Server是Zygote孵化的第一个进程,System Server负责启动和管理整个Java framework,包含ActivityManager,PowerManager等服务。

  3. Media Server进程,是由init进程fork而来,负责启动和管理整个C++ framework,包含AudioFlinger,Camera Service,等服务。

1.5 App层

(1) Zygote进程孵化出的第一个App进程是Launcher,这是用户看到的桌面App;
(2) Zygote进程还会创建Browser,Phone,Email等App进程,每个App至少运行在一个进程上。
(3) 所有的App进程都是由Zygote进程fork生成的。

1.6 Syscall && JNI

(1) Native与Kernel之间有一层系统调用(SysCall)层
(2) Java层与Native(C/C++)层之间的纽带JNI

二、源码

Kernel中启动的第一个用户进程是init程序;而init会通过解析init.rc来启动zygote服务;而zygote又会进一步的启动SystemServer。在SystemServer中,Android会启动一系列的系统服务共用户调用。整个流程大致如此。

init进程, 启动的第一个用户进程,进程id 为1,init创建zygote进程,提供属性服务(property service);在这里会解析init.rc。

init.rc是由一种被称为“Android初始化语言”(Android Init Language,这里简称为AIL)的脚本写成的文件。这里先大致了解下AIL。

AIL由如下4部分组成:

(1) 动作(Actions)
(2) 命令(Commands)
(3) 服务(Services)
(4) 选项(Options)

这4部分都是面向行的代码,也就是说用回车换行符作为每一条语句的分隔符。而每一行的代码由多个符号(Tokens)表示,用#来注释。
AIL在编写时需要分成多个部分(Section),而每一部分的开头需要指定Actions或Services。也就是说,每一个Actions或Services确定一个Section。而所有的Commands和Options只能属于最近定义的Section。如果Commands和Options在第一个Section之前被定义,它们将被忽略。
Actions和Services的名称必须唯一。如果有两个或多个Action或Service拥有同样的名称,那么init在执行它们时将抛出错误,并忽略这些Action和Service。写法如下:

on <trigger>
   <command>
   <command>
   <command>

如下:

on boot
    ifup lo
    hostname localhost
    domainname localdomain

关键字on后接的就是Section,接下来就是每行一条的command。
重点关注下: class name,其功能是指定一个名为name的服务类。所有同一类的服务可以同时启动和停止。如果不指定name,则默认为"default"类服务。

2.1 android/kernel/msm-4.9/init/main.c

kernel 启动 init 程序:

static int __ref kernel_init(void *unused)
{
    int ret;
    // 2.1.1 挂载根文件系统并指定init路径
    kernel_init_freeable();
    if (ramdisk_execute_command) {
        // 2.1.2 执行 “/init” 程序
        ret = run_init_process(ramdisk_execute_command); 
        if (!ret) 
            return 0;
        pr_err("Failed to execute %s (error %d)\n",
              ramdisk_execute_command, ret);
    }
    ......
}

2.1.1 kernel_init_freeable
static noinline void __init kernel_init_freeable(void)
{
    // 等待直到 kthreadd 设置完毕
    wait_for_completion(&kthreadd_done);
    ......
    if (!ramdisk_execute_command)
        ramdisk_execute_command = "/init"; // 默认init路径,在根目录下
    // 挂载根文件系统
    if (sys_access((const char __user *) ramdisk_execute_command, 0) != 0) {
        ramdisk_execute_command = NULL;
        prepare_namespace();
    }
    integrity_load_keys();
    load_default_modules();
}

2.1.2 init 服务定义

Android.mk 编译文件位于 /system/core/init 目录,所以 /init 源文件是 /system/core/init/init.cpp 。

include $(CLEAR_VARS)
LOCAL_CPPFLAGS := $(init_cflags)
LOCAL_SRC_FILES:= \
    bootchart.cpp \
    builtins.cpp \
    devices.cpp \
    init.cpp \
    init_first_stage.cpp \
    keychords.cpp \
    property_service.cpp \
    reboot.cpp \
    signal_handler.cpp \
    ueventd.cpp \
    ueventd_parser.cpp \
    watchdogd.cpp \
LOCAL_MODULE:= init
LOCAL_C_INCLUDES += \
    system/core/mkbootimg

2.1.3 system/core/init/init.cpp:main

由.mk文件所知,Android init进程的入口文件在android/system/core/init/init.cpp中:

int main(int argc, char** argv) {
    // 这里会根据启动的init程序传入的参数决定运行的是什么。
    // init模块包含三个部分,分别有两个守护进程ueventd watchdogd。
    // 默认启动的才是init进程本身
    if (!strcmp(basename(argv[0]), "ueventd")) {
        return ueventd_main(argc, argv);
    }
    if (!strcmp(basename(argv[0]), "watchdogd")) {
        return watchdogd_main(argc, argv);
    }
    // REBOOT_BOOTLOADER_ON_PANIC是否定义由init模块的 .mk 决定
    // 只有userdebug eng 这两个版本会打开这个选项,user 版本没有。 
    // 主要作用,当init进程崩溃后,不是让内核崩溃,而是重启bootloader,让开发者容易定位问题。
    if (REBOOT_BOOTLOADER_ON_PANIC) {
        install_reboot_signal_handlers();// 主要作用将各种信号量,如SIGABRT,SIGABRT等的行为设置为SA_RESTART
    }
    add_environment("PATH", _PATH_DEFPATH);
    
    bool is_first_stage = (getenv("INIT_SECOND_STAGE") == nullptr);
    if (is_first_stage) {
        boot_clock::time_point start_time = boot_clock::now();
        // 清除屏蔽字(file mode creation mask),保证新建的目录的访问权限不受屏蔽字影响。
        umask(0);

        // 在initRamdisk上设置基本的文件系统,然后由rc文件设置剩余部分
        // initRamdisk 就是 RAM 创建的虚拟文件系统,之后挂载真实的文件系统
        // mpfs是一种虚拟内存文件系统,它会将所有的文件存储在虚拟内存中,如果将tmpfs文件系统卸载后,那么其下的所有的内容将不复存在。 
        mount("tmpfs", "/dev", "tmpfs", MS_NOSUID, "mode=0755");
        mkdir("/dev/pts", 0755);
        mkdir("/dev/socket", 0755);
        // devpts文件系统为伪终端提供了一个标准接口,它的标准挂接点是/dev/ pts。只要pty的主复合设备/dev/ptmx被打开,就会在/dev/pts下动态的创建一个新的pty设备文件。
        mount("devpts", "/dev/pts", "devpts", 0, NULL);
        #define MAKE_STR(x) __STRING(x)
        // proc文件系统是一个非常重要的虚拟文件系统,它可以看作是内核内部数据结构的接口,通过它我们可以获得系统的信息,同时也能够在运行时修改特定的内核参数。
        mount("proc", "/proc", "proc", 0, "hidepid=2,gid=" MAKE_STR(AID_READPROC));
        chmod("/proc/cmdline", 0440);
        gid_t groups[] = { AID_READPROC };
        setgroups(arraysize(groups), groups);
        // 与proc文件系统类似,sysfs文件系统也是一个不占有任何磁盘空间的虚拟文件系统。它通常被挂接在/sys目录下。
        // sysfs文件系统是Linux2.6内核引入的,它把连接在系统上的设备和总线组织成为一个分级的文件,使得它们可以在用户空间存取。
        mount("sysfs", "/sys", "sysfs", 0, NULL);
        // 挂载SELinux文件系统
        mount("selinuxfs", "/sys/fs/selinux", "selinuxfs", 0, NULL);
        mknod("/dev/kmsg", S_IFCHR | 0600, makedev(1, 11));
        mknod("/dev/random", S_IFCHR | 0666, makedev(1, 8));
        mknod("/dev/urandom", S_IFCHR | 0666, makedev(1, 9));
        // 现在RAM已经挂载了存储设备
        InitKernelLogging(argv);
        LOG(INFO) << "init first stage started!";
        if (!DoFirstStageMount()) {
            LOG(ERROR) << "Failed to mount required partitions early ...";
            panic();
        }
        SetInitAvbVersionInRecovery();
        // 设置SELinux,加载SELinux策略
        selinux_initialize(true);
        if (restorecon("/init") == -1) {
            PLOG(ERROR) << "restorecon failed";
            security_failure();
        }
        setenv("INIT_SECOND_STAGE", "true", 1);
        static constexpr uint32_t kNanosecondsPerMillisecond = 1e6;
        uint64_t start_ms = start_time.time_since_epoch().count() / kNanosecondsPerMillisecond;
        setenv("INIT_STARTED_AT", StringPrintf("%" PRIu64, start_ms).c_str(), 1);
        char* path = argv[0];
        char* args[] = { path, nullptr };
        execv(path, args);
        PLOG(ERROR) << "execv(\"" << path << "\") failed";
        security_failure();
    }

    // At this point we're in the second stage of init.
    InitKernelLogging(argv);
    LOG(INFO) << "init second stage started!";
    keyctl(KEYCTL_GET_KEYRING_ID, KEY_SPEC_SESSION_KEYRING, 1);
    close(open("/dev/.booting", O_WRONLY | O_CREAT | O_CLOEXEC, 0000));

    property_init();//property初始化property,创建一块存储区域
    process_kernel_dt();
    process_kernel_cmdline();
    export_kernel_boot_props();
    property_set("ro.boottime.init", getenv("INIT_STARTED_AT"));
    property_set("ro.boottime.init.selinux", getenv("INIT_SELINUX_TOOK"));
    const char* avb_version = getenv("INIT_AVB_VERSION");
    if (avb_version) property_set("ro.boot.avb_version", avb_version);
    // 清理环境
    unsetenv("INIT_SECOND_STAGE");
    unsetenv("INIT_STARTED_AT");
    unsetenv("INIT_SELINUX_TOOK");
    unsetenv("INIT_AVB_VERSION");

    selinux_initialize(false);
    selinux_restore_context();
    epoll_fd = epoll_create1(EPOLL_CLOEXEC);
    if (epoll_fd == -1) {
        PLOG(ERROR) << "epoll_create1 failed";
        exit(1);
    }
    signal_handler_init();
    property_load_boot_defaults();//加载默认的property
    export_oem_lock_status();
    start_property_service();//开启property service
    set_usb_controller();
    const BuiltinFunctionMap function_map;
    Action::set_function_map(&function_map);
    // 准备解析init.rc文件
    Parser& parser = Parser::GetInstance();
    parser.AddSectionParser("service",std::make_unique<ServiceParser>());
    parser.AddSectionParser("on", std::make_unique<ActionParser>());
    parser.AddSectionParser("import", std::make_unique<ImportParser>());
    std::string bootscript = GetProperty("ro.boot.init_rc", "");
    if (bootscript.empty()) {
        parser.ParseConfig("/init.rc"); //解析init.rc文件,这个脚本里面包括启动Zygote进程命令
        parser.set_is_system_etc_init_loaded(
                parser.ParseConfig("/system/etc/init"));
        parser.set_is_vendor_etc_init_loaded(
                parser.ParseConfig("/vendor/etc/init"));
        parser.set_is_odm_etc_init_loaded(parser.ParseConfig("/odm/etc/init"));
    } else {
        parser.ParseConfig(bootscript);
        parser.set_is_system_etc_init_loaded(true);
        parser.set_is_vendor_etc_init_loaded(true);
        parser.set_is_odm_etc_init_loaded(true);
    }
    if (false) parser.DumpState();

    ActionManager& am = ActionManager::GetInstance();
    // QueueEventTrigger函数就是利用参数构造EventTrigger,然后加入到trigger_queue_中。
    // 添加触发器early-init,执行on early-init内容
    am.QueueEventTrigger("early-init");

    // QueueBuiltinAction函数中构造新的action加入到actions_中,第一个参数作为新建action携带cmd的执行函数;
    // 第二个参数既作为action的trigger name,也作为action携带cmd的参数。
     // 等待冷启动完毕
    am.QueueBuiltinAction(wait_for_coldboot_done_action, "wait_for_coldboot_done");
    // 从硬件RNG的设备文件/dev/hw_random中读取512字节并写到Linux RNG的设备文件/dev/urandom中。
    am.QueueBuiltinAction(MixHwrngIntoLinuxRngAction, "MixHwrngIntoLinuxRng");
    am.QueueBuiltinAction(SetMmapRndBitsAction, "SetMmapRndBits");
    am.QueueBuiltinAction(SetKptrRestrictAction, "SetKptrRestrict");
    // 初始化组合键监听模块
    am.QueueBuiltinAction(keychord_init_action, "keychord_init");
     // 显示开机画面
    am.QueueBuiltinAction(console_init_action, "console_init");
    // 添加触发器init,执行on init内容,主要包括创建/挂载一些目录,以及symlink等
    am.QueueEventTrigger("init");

    am.QueueBuiltinAction(mix_hwrng_into_linux_rng_action, "mix_hwrng_into_linux_rng");
    //这里做个判断,如果是充电的情况,先不开机,执行init.rc:charger
    //否则,执行init.rc:late-init
    std::string bootmode = GetProperty("ro.bootmode", "");
    if (bootmode == "charger") {
        am.QueueEventTrigger("charger");
    } else {
        am.QueueEventTrigger("late-init");
    }
    am.QueueBuiltinAction(queue_property_triggers_action, "queue_property_triggers");
    while (true) {
        int epoll_timeout_ms = -1;
        // 判断是否有事件处理
        if (!(waiting_for_prop || ServiceManager::GetInstance().IsWaitingForExec())) {
            am.ExecuteOneCommand(); // 依次执行每个action中携带的command对应的函数
        }
        if (!(waiting_for_prop || ServiceManager::GetInstance().IsWaitingForExec())) {
            restart_processes(); // 重启挂掉的进程
            // 存在待重启的进程,计算等待时间
            if (process_needs_restart_at != 0) {
                epoll_timeout_ms = (process_needs_restart_at - time(nullptr)) * 1000;
                if (epoll_timeout_ms < 0) epoll_timeout_ms = 0;
            }
            // 存在命令待执行,等待时间置零,立刻执行
            if (am.HasMoreCommands()) epoll_timeout_ms = 0;
        }
        epoll_event ev;
        // 没有事件等待 epoll_timeout_ms
        int nr = TEMP_FAILURE_RETRY(epoll_wait(epoll_fd, &ev, 1, epoll_timeout_ms));
        if (nr == -1) {
            PLOG(ERROR) << "epoll_wait failed";
        } else if (nr == 1) { 
            // 有事件到来,执行对应处理函数
            // 根据上文知道,epoll句柄(即epoll_fd)主要监听子进程结束,及其它进程设置系统属性的请求。
            ((void (*)()) ev.data.ptr)();
        }
    }
    return 0;
}


2.2 启动Zygote进程

late-init:

# Mount filesystems and start core system services.
on late-init
    trigger early-fs
    #通过mount_all命令在init {{device} .rc中挂载fstab。
    #可选参数'--early'可以被指定为跳过'latemount'的条目。 
    #/system 和/vendor 必须安装在阶段fs的末尾,而/data是可选的。
    trigger fs

    #启动logd
    trigger post-fs

    #在init {$ Device} .rc中使用'--late'参数通过mount_all挂载fstab,以便仅使用'latemount'挂载条目
    trigger late-fs

    #现在我们可以挂载/数据。文件加密需要keymaster解密/数据,只有当系统属性存在时才能加载。
    trigger post-fs-data

    #这里启动Zygote进程,也就是第一个java进程
    #这里是Andoird O版本改变的地方,O以前Zygote进程并非在此,具体位置待查
    trigger zygote-start

    # 加载永久属性
    trigger load_persist_props_action

    # Remove a file to wake up anything waiting for firmware.
    trigger firmware_mounts_complete

    trigger early-boot
    #boot中启动core服务,core服务有ueventd、logd、healthd、sh、adbd、servicemanager、vold、SurfaceFlinger、bootanimation。
    trigger boot

上面trigger zygote-start:

2.3 app_main

目录:/frameworks/base/cmds/app_process/app_main.cpp
关于这个类怎么工作的,稍后研究,先关注Zygote进程的孵化过程:

int main(int argc, char* const argv[])
{
    if (!LOG_NDEBUG) {
      String8 argv_String;
      for (int i = 0; i < argc; ++i) {
        argv_String.append("\"");
        argv_String.append(argv[i]);
        argv_String.append("\" ");
      }
      ALOGV("app_process main with argv: %s", argv_String.string());
    }
    // 这里的AppRuntime继承了大名鼎鼎的AndroidRuntime
    AppRuntime runtime(argv[0], computeArgBlockSize(argc, argv));
    // 忽略参数 argv[0]
    argc--;
    argv++;

    const char* spaced_commands[] = { "-cp", "-classpath" };
    // Allow "spaced commands" to be succeeded by exactly 1 argument (regardless of -s).
    bool known_command = false;

    int i;
    for (i = 0; i < argc; i++) {
        if (known_command == true) {
          runtime.addOption(strdup(argv[i]));
          ALOGV("app_process main add known option '%s'", argv[i]);
          known_command = false;
          continue;
        }

        for (int j = 0;
            j < static_cast<int>(sizeof(spaced_commands) / sizeof(spaced_commands[0]));
            ++j) {
          if (strcmp(argv[i], spaced_commands[j]) == 0) {
            known_command = true;
            ALOGV("app_process main found known command '%s'", argv[i]);
          }
        }

        if (argv[i][0] != '-') {
            break;
        }
        if (argv[i][1] == '-' && argv[i][2] == 0) {
            ++i; // Skip --.
            break;
        }

        runtime.addOption(strdup(argv[i]));
        ALOGV("app_process main add option '%s'", argv[i]);
    }

    // Parse runtime arguments.  Stop at first unrecognized option.
    bool zygote = false;
    bool startSystemServer = false;
    bool application = false;
    String8 niceName;
    String8 className;

    ++i;  // Skip unused "parent dir" argument.
    while (i < argc) {
        const char* arg = argv[i++];
        if (strcmp(arg, "--zygote") == 0) {
            zygote = true; // 标记启动zygote进程
            // 对于64位 ZYGOTE_NICE_NAME = zygote64 否则为 zygote
            niceName = ZYGOTE_NICE_NAME;
        } else if (strcmp(arg, "--start-system-server") == 0) {
            startSystemServer = true;
        } else if (strcmp(arg, "--application") == 0) {
            application = true;
        } else if (strncmp(arg, "--nice-name=", 12) == 0) {
            niceName.setTo(arg + 12);
        } else if (strncmp(arg, "--", 2) != 0) {
            className.setTo(arg);
            break;
        } else {
            --i;
            break;
        }
    }

    Vector<String8> args;
    if (!className.isEmpty()) {
        args.add(application ? String8("application") : String8("tool"));
        runtime.setClassNameAndArgs(className, argc - i, argv + i);

        if (!LOG_NDEBUG) {
          String8 restOfArgs;
          char* const* argv_new = argv + i;
          int argc_new = argc - i;
          for (int k = 0; k < argc_new; ++k) {
            restOfArgs.append("\"");
            restOfArgs.append(argv_new[k]);
            restOfArgs.append("\" ");
          }
          ALOGV("Class name = %s, args = %s", className.string(), restOfArgs.string());
        }
    } else {
        // 创建 /data/dalvik-cache路径
        maybeCreateDalvikCache();

        if (startSystemServer) {
            args.add(String8("start-system-server"));
        }

        char prop[PROP_VALUE_MAX];
        if (property_get(ABI_LIST_PROPERTY, prop, NULL) == 0) {
            LOG_ALWAYS_FATAL("app_process: Unable to determine ABI list from property %s.",
                ABI_LIST_PROPERTY);
            return 11;
        }

        String8 abiFlag("--abi-list=");
        abiFlag.append(prop);
        args.add(abiFlag);

        // zygote模式下,将所有参数传给zygote.main()
        for (; i < argc; ++i) {
            args.add(String8(argv[i]));
        }
    }

    if (!niceName.isEmpty()) {
        runtime.setArgv0(niceName.string(), true /* setProcName */);
    }

    if (zygote) {
        // 2.3.1 启动AndroidRuntime和zygote进程
        runtime.start("com.android.internal.os.ZygoteInit", args, zygote);
    } else if (className) {
        runtime.start("com.android.internal.os.RuntimeInit", args, zygote);
    } else {
        fprintf(stderr, "Error: no class name or --zygote supplied.\n");
        app_usage();
        LOG_ALWAYS_FATAL("app_process: no class name or --zygote supplied.");
    }
}

2.3.1 AppRuntime:AndroidRuntime.start
void AndroidRuntime::start(const char* className, const Vector<String8>& options, bool zygote)
{
    ALOGD(">>>>>> START %s uid %d <<<<<<\n",
            className != NULL ? className : "(unknown)", getuid());
    static const String8 startSystemServer("start-system-server");

    // 'startSystemServer == true' 意味着运行时过时且并非从init.rc文件启动
    // 所以这里打印引导事件
    for (size_t i = 0; i < options.size(); ++i) {
        if (options[i] == startSystemServer) {
          const int LOG_BOOT_PROGRESS_START = 3000;
          LOG_EVENT_LONG(LOG_BOOT_PROGRESS_START,  ns2ms(systemTime(SYSTEM_TIME_MONOTONIC)));
        }
    }
    // Android根目录
    const char* rootDir = getenv("ANDROID_ROOT");
    if (rootDir == NULL) {
        rootDir = "/system";
        if (!hasDir("/system")) {
            LOG_FATAL("No root directory specified, and /android does not exist.");
            return;
        }
        setenv("ANDROID_ROOT", rootDir, 1);
    }
     // 启动虚拟机,详细后续分析虚拟机
    JniInvocation jni_invocation;
    jni_invocation.Init(NULL);
    JNIEnv* env;
    if (startVm(&mJavaVM, &env, zygote) != 0) {
        return;
    }
    onVmCreated(env);

    // 向JavaVM注册安卓原生函数(JNI)
    if (startReg(env) < 0) {
        ALOGE("Unable to register all android natives\n");
        return;
    }

    // 将参数转成Java String类型的对象
    jclass stringClass;
    jobjectArray strArray;
    jstring classNameStr;
    stringClass = env->FindClass("java/lang/String");
    assert(stringClass != NULL);
    // 创建String数组
    strArray = env->NewObjectArray(options.size() + 1, stringClass, NULL);
    assert(strArray != NULL);
    classNameStr = env->NewStringUTF(className);
    assert(classNameStr != NULL);
    env->SetObjectArrayElement(strArray, 0, classNameStr);
    for (size_t i = 0; i < options.size(); ++i) {
        jstring optionsStr = env->NewStringUTF(options.itemAt(i).string());
        assert(optionsStr != NULL);
        env->SetObjectArrayElement(strArray, i + 1, optionsStr);
    }

    // 启动JavaVM,本线程成为VM的主线程,一直运行直到VM退出
    // 这里的 className = "com.android.internal.os.ZygoteInit"
    // slashClassName = "com/android/internal/os/ZygoteInit"
    char* slashClassName = toSlashClassName(className);
    jclass startClass = env->FindClass(slashClassName);
    if (startClass == NULL) {
        ALOGE("JavaVM unable to locate class '%s'\n", slashClassName);
    } else {
        jmethodID startMeth = env->GetStaticMethodID(startClass, "main",
            "([Ljava/lang/String;)V");
        if (startMeth == NULL) {
            ALOGE("JavaVM unable to find main() in '%s'\n", className);
        } else {
            // 2.4 调用ZygoteInit.main方法!!!
            env->CallStaticVoidMethod(startClass, startMeth, strArray);
#if 0
            if (env->ExceptionCheck())
                threadExitUncaughtException(env);
#endif
        }
    }
    free(slashClassName);
    ALOGD("Shutting down VM\n");
    if (mJavaVM->DetachCurrentThread() != JNI_OK)
        ALOGW("Warning: unable to detach main thread\n");
    if (mJavaVM->DestroyJavaVM() != 0)
        ALOGW("Warning: VM did not shut down cleanly\n");
}

2.4 ZygoteInit.main

进入Zygote进程~~
目录:/frameworks/base/core/java/com/android/internal/os/ZygoteInit.java

    public static void main(String argv[]) {
        ZygoteServer zygoteServer = new ZygoteServer();

        // 标记Zygote开始,启动无多线程模式,意味着在zygoteInit中新建线程系统挂掉 
        ZygoteHooks.startZygoteNoThreadCreation();
        try {
            Os.setpgid(0, 0); // 设置Zygote的pid,gid为0.
        } catch (ErrnoException ex) {
            throw new RuntimeException("Failed to setpgid(0,0)", ex);
        }
        try {
            if (!"1".equals(SystemProperties.get("sys.boot_completed"))) {
                // 在Event.log输出:boot_zygote_init+开机时间
                MetricsLogger.histogram(null, "boot_zygote_init",
                        (int) SystemClock.elapsedRealtime());
            }

            String bootTimeTag = Process.is64Bit() ? "Zygote64Timing" : "Zygote32Timing";
            BootTimingsTraceLog bootTimingsTraceLog = new BootTimingsTraceLog(bootTimeTag,
                    Trace.TRACE_TAG_DALVIK);
            bootTimingsTraceLog.traceBegin("ZygoteInit");
            RuntimeInit.enableDdms();
            // 启动性能统计,默认关闭,persist.sys.profiler_ms属性控制(>0开启)
            SamplingProfilerIntegration.start();

            boolean startSystemServer = false;
            String socketName = "zygote";
            String abiList = null;
            boolean enableLazyPreload = false;
            for (int i = 1; i < argv.length; i++) {
                if ("start-system-server".equals(argv[i])) {
                    startSystemServer = true;
                } else if ("--enable-lazy-preload".equals(argv[i])) {
                    enableLazyPreload = true;
                } else if (argv[i].startsWith(ABI_LIST_ARG)) {
                    abiList = argv[i].substring(ABI_LIST_ARG.length());
                } else if (argv[i].startsWith(SOCKET_NAME_ARG)) {
                    socketName = argv[i].substring(SOCKET_NAME_ARG.length());
                } else {
                    throw new RuntimeException("Unknown command line argument: " + argv[i]);
                }
            }

            if (abiList == null) {
                throw new RuntimeException("No ABI list supplied.");
            }
            // 创建名为 ANDROID_SOCKET_zygote 的Socket接口
            zygoteServer.registerServerSocket(socketName);
            // 某些配置下,预加载资源和类会在第一次fork时进行
            if (!enableLazyPreload) {
                bootTimingsTraceLog.traceBegin("ZygotePreload");
                EventLog.writeEvent(LOG_BOOT_PROGRESS_PRELOAD_START,
                    SystemClock.uptimeMillis());
                preload(bootTimingsTraceLog);
                EventLog.writeEvent(LOG_BOOT_PROGRESS_PRELOAD_END,
                    SystemClock.uptimeMillis());
                bootTimingsTraceLog.traceEnd(); // ZygotePreload
            } else {
                Zygote.resetNicePriority();
            }
            SamplingProfilerIntegration.writeZygoteSnapshot();

            // 初始化gc
            bootTimingsTraceLog.traceBegin("PostZygoteInitGC");
            gcAndFinalize();
            bootTimingsTraceLog.traceEnd(); // PostZygoteInitGC

            bootTimingsTraceLog.traceEnd(); // ZygoteInit
            // 关闭trace以防止fork出的进程trace错误
            Trace.setTracingEnabled(false);

            // Zygote 进程卸载根存储空间,喵喵喵?
            // 大概是Zygote进程存在的唯一意义是用于fork进程,不涉及存储操作,为防止出错,索性使Zygote进程无法接触存储设备
            Zygote.nativeUnmountStorageOnInit();

            // 设置Android沙盒策略
            Seccomp.setPolicy();
            // 停止无多线程模式
            ZygoteHooks.stopZygoteNoThreadCreation();

            if (startSystemServer) {
                // 2.5 启动 SystemServer 进程
                startSystemServer(abiList, socketName, zygoteServer);
            }

            Log.i(TAG, "Accepting command socket connections");
            zygoteServer.runSelectLoop(abiList); // 2.4.1 无限循环监听Socket接口等待AMS请求创建应用进程

            zygoteServer.closeServerSocket();
        } catch (Zygote.MethodAndArgsCaller caller) {
            caller.run();
        } catch (Throwable ex) {
            Log.e(TAG, "System zygote died with exception", ex);
            zygoteServer.closeServerSocket();
            throw ex;
        }
    }

首先调用registerZygoteSocket方法,创建一个socket接口,用来和ActivityManagerService通讯,然后调用preload方法预加载一些资源等;然后调用gcAndFinalize方法释放一些内存;然后调用startSystemServer方法启动SystemServer组件,然后调用runSelectLoop方法,创建一个无限循环,在socket接口上等待ActivityManagerService请求创建新的应用程序进程。

2.4.1 ZygoteServer.runSelectLoop
    void runSelectLoop(String abiList) throws Zygote.MethodAndArgsCaller {
        ArrayList<FileDescriptor> fds = new ArrayList<FileDescriptor>();
        ArrayList<ZygoteConnection> peers = new ArrayList<ZygoteConnection>();

        fds.add(mServerSocket.getFileDescriptor());
        peers.add(null);

        while (true) {
            StructPollfd[] pollFds = new StructPollfd[fds.size()];
            for (int i = 0; i < pollFds.length; ++i) {
                pollFds[i] = new StructPollfd();
                pollFds[i].fd = fds.get(i);
                pollFds[i].events = (short) POLLIN;
            }
            try {
                Os.poll(pollFds, -1);
            } catch (ErrnoException ex) {
                throw new RuntimeException("poll failed", ex);
            }
            for (int i = pollFds.length - 1; i >= 0; --i) {
                if ((pollFds[i].revents & POLLIN) == 0) {
                    continue;
                }
                if (i == 0) {
                    //监听Socket链接,此处充当了服务端Socket                    
                    ZygoteConnection newPeer = acceptCommandPeer(abiList);
                    peers.add(newPeer);
                    fds.add(newPeer.getFileDesciptor());
                } else {
                    // runOnce
                    boolean done = peers.get(i).runOnce(this);
                    if (done) {
                        peers.remove(i);
                        fds.remove(i);
                    }
                }
            }
        }
    }

2.5 ZygoteInit.startSystemServer

这里开始启动SystemServer进程

    private static boolean startSystemServer(String abiList, String socketName, ZygoteServer zygoteServer)
            throws Zygote.MethodAndArgsCaller, RuntimeException {
        long capabilities = posixCapabilitiesAsBits(
            OsConstants.CAP_IPC_LOCK,
            OsConstants.CAP_KILL,
            OsConstants.CAP_NET_ADMIN,
            OsConstants.CAP_NET_BIND_SERVICE,
            OsConstants.CAP_NET_BROADCAST,
            OsConstants.CAP_NET_RAW,
            OsConstants.CAP_SYS_MODULE,
            OsConstants.CAP_SYS_NICE,
            OsConstants.CAP_SYS_PTRACE,
            OsConstants.CAP_SYS_TIME,
            OsConstants.CAP_SYS_TTY_CONFIG,
            OsConstants.CAP_WAKE_ALARM
        );
        /* Containers run without this capability, so avoid setting it in that case */
        if (!SystemProperties.getBoolean(PROPERTY_RUNNING_IN_CONTAINER, false)) {
            capabilities |= posixCapabilitiesAsBits(OsConstants.CAP_BLOCK_SUSPEND);
        }
        /* Hardcoded command line to start the system server */
        String args[] = {
            "--setuid=1000",
            "--setgid=1000",
            "--setgroups=1001,1002,1003,1004,1005,1006,1007,1008,1009,1010,1018,1021,1023,1032,3001,3002,3003,3006,3007,3009,3010",
            "--capabilities=" + capabilities + "," + capabilities,
            "--nice-name=system_server",
            "--runtime-args",
            "com.android.server.SystemServer",
        };
        ZygoteConnection.Arguments parsedArgs = null;

        int pid;

        try {
            parsedArgs = new ZygoteConnection.Arguments(args);
            ZygoteConnection.applyDebuggerSystemProperty(parsedArgs);
            ZygoteConnection.applyInvokeWithSystemProperty(parsedArgs);
            // 请求 fork SystemServer 进程
            /* Request to fork the system server process */
            pid = Zygote.forkSystemServer(
                    parsedArgs.uid, parsedArgs.gid,
                    parsedArgs.gids,
                    parsedArgs.debugFlags,
                    null,
                    parsedArgs.permittedCapabilities,
                    parsedArgs.effectiveCapabilities);
        } catch (IllegalArgumentException ex) {
            throw new RuntimeException(ex);
        }

        /* For child process */
        if (pid == 0) {
            if (hasSecondZygote(abiList)) {
                waitForSecondaryZygote(socketName);
            }

            zygoteServer.closeServerSocket();
            handleSystemServerProcess(parsedArgs);
        }

        return true;
    }

2.6 SystemServer.main

从Zygote进程fork而来的系统进程,当运行时重启或者手机重启时,标记mRuntimeRestart

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        new SystemServer().run();
    }

    public SystemServer() {
        // Check for factory test mode.
        mFactoryTestMode = FactoryTest.getMode();
        // Remember if it's runtime restart(when sys.boot_completed is already set) or reboot
        mRuntimeRestart = "1".equals(SystemProperties.get("sys.boot_completed"));
    }

2.7 SystemServer.run
    private void run() {
        try {
            traceBeginAndSlog("InitBeforeStartServices");//在android.log输出:"I SystemServer: InitBeforeStartServices"
            // 保证系统时间大于1970,部分API在时间小于此时会崩溃
            if (System.currentTimeMillis() < EARLIEST_SUPPORTED_TIME) {
                Slog.w(TAG, "System clock is before 1970; setting to 1970.");
                SystemClock.setCurrentTimeMillis(EARLIEST_SUPPORTED_TIME);
            }
            // 如果没有设置时区,统一设置为GMT
            String timezoneProperty =  SystemProperties.get("persist.sys.timezone");
            if (timezoneProperty == null || timezoneProperty.isEmpty()) {
                Slog.w(TAG, "Timezone not set; setting to GMT.");
                SystemProperties.set("persist.sys.timezone", "GMT");
            }
            // 设置系统语言,只有SystemServer进程和系统app允许修改
            // NOTE: Most changes made here will need an equivalent change to
            // core/jni/AndroidRuntime.cpp
            if (!SystemProperties.get("persist.sys.language").isEmpty()) {
                final String languageTag = Locale.getDefault().toLanguageTag();
                SystemProperties.set("persist.sys.locale", languageTag);
                SystemProperties.set("persist.sys.language", "");
                SystemProperties.set("persist.sys.country", "");
                SystemProperties.set("persist.sys.localevar", "");
            }

            // The system server should never make non-oneway calls
            Binder.setWarnOnBlocking(true);

            // 正式进入Android SystemServer
            Slog.i(TAG, "Entered the Android system server!");//在android.log输出:"I SystemServer: Entered the Android system server!"
            int uptimeMillis = (int) SystemClock.elapsedRealtime();//开机时间
            //在event.log里输出:"I boot_progress_system_run: 11663",后面的数字代表开机时长,单位ms
            EventLog.writeEvent(EventLogTags.BOOT_PROGRESS_SYSTEM_RUN, uptimeMillis);
            if (!mRuntimeRestart) {
                //非runtime重启或者手机重启进入
                //在event.log里输出:"sysui_histogram: [boot_system_server_init,11663]"
                MetricsLogger.histogram(null, "boot_system_server_init", uptimeMillis);
            }

            //设置运行时属性,防止如OTA更新导致运行时不同步
            //也就是设置虚拟机库文件
            SystemProperties.set("persist.sys.dalvik.vm.lib.2", VMRuntime.getRuntime().vmLibrary());

            // 启动采样分析器,进行性能统计
            if (SamplingProfilerIntegration.isEnabled()) {
                SamplingProfilerIntegration.start();
                mProfilerSnapshotTimer = new Timer();
                mProfilerSnapshotTimer.schedule(new TimerTask() {
                        @Override
                        public void run() {
                            //SystemServer性能统计,每小时统计一次,统计结果输出为文件
                            SamplingProfilerIntegration.writeSnapshot("system_server", null);
                        }
                    }, SNAPSHOT_INTERVAL, SNAPSHOT_INTERVAL);//private static final long SNAPSHOT_INTERVAL = 60 * 60 * 1000; // 1hr
            }

            // 清除vm内存增长上限,由于启动过程需要较多的虚拟机内存空间
            VMRuntime.getRuntime().clearGrowthLimit();

            // 系统服务会一直运行,所以设置内存的可能有效使用率为0.8,也就是增强程序堆内存的处理效率
            //为啥是0.8??
            VMRuntime.getRuntime().setTargetHeapUtilization(0.8f);

            // 针对部分设备依赖于运行时就产生指纹信息,因此需要在开机完成前已经定义
            Build.ensureFingerprintProperty();

            // 访问环境变量前,需要明确指定用户
            Environment.setUserRequired(true);

            // 系统服务中拒绝接收任何Bundle以避免抛出BadParcelableException
            BaseBundle.setShouldDefuse(true);

            // 确保系统Binder运行在前台优先级
            BinderInternal.disableBackgroundScheduling(true);

            // 设置系统服务的最大Binder线程数为31
            BinderInternal.setMaxThreads(sMaxBinderThreads);

            // 设置当前进程的优先级为前台优先级,且不允许转为后台优先级
            android.os.Process.setThreadPriority(
                android.os.Process.THREAD_PRIORITY_FOREGROUND);
            android.os.Process.setCanSelfBackground(false);
            Looper.prepareMainLooper();//主线程的Looper就在当前线程运行

            // 初始化本地服务,也就是加载库文件: android_servers.so
            // 该库包含的源码在frameworks/base/services/目录下
            System.loadLibrary("android_servers");

            // 检测上次关机过程是否失败,该方法可能不会返回[2.7.1]
            performPendingShutdown();

            // 创建系统上下文,详细见Application创建流程
            createSystemContext();

            // 创建SystemServiceManager
            mSystemServiceManager = new SystemServiceManager(mSystemContext);
            mSystemServiceManager.setRuntimeRestarted(mRuntimeRestart);
            LocalServices.addService(SystemServiceManager.class, mSystemServiceManager);
            // 为可以并行化的init任务准备线程池
            SystemServerInitThreadPool.get();
        } finally {
            traceEnd(); 
        }

        //启动各类服务
        try {
            traceBeginAndSlog("StartServices");// 在android.log里输出:"SystemServer: StartServices"
            startBootstrapServices();//启动引导服务[2.7.2]
            startCoreServices();//启动核心服务[2.7.3]
            startOtherServices();//启动其他服务[2.7.4]
            // 关闭SystemServerInitThreadPool
            // 在android.log输出:"SystemServerInitThreadPool: Shutdown successful"
            SystemServerInitThreadPool.shutdown();
        } catch (Throwable ex) {
            Slog.e("System", "******************************************");
            Slog.e("System", "************ Failure starting system services", ex);
            throw ex;
        } finally {
            traceEnd();
        }
        // 对于调试版本,日志事件循环停止到dropbox进行分析。
        if (StrictMode.conditionallyEnableDebugLogging()) {
            Slog.i(TAG, "Enabled StrictMode for system server main thread.");
        }
     
        if (!mRuntimeRestart && !isFirstBootOrUpgrade()) {
            // 非重启且非第一次开机或者更新时进入
            int uptimeMillis = (int) SystemClock.elapsedRealtime();
            // 在event.log中输出:"I sysui_histogram: [boot_system_server_ready,26127]"
            MetricsLogger.histogram(null, "boot_system_server_ready", uptimeMillis);
            final int MAX_UPTIME_MILLIS = 60 * 1000;
            if (uptimeMillis > MAX_UPTIME_MILLIS) {//开机时长超过60s,打印至android.log
                Slog.wtf(SYSTEM_SERVER_TIMING_TAG,
                        "SystemServer init took too long. uptimeMillis=" + uptimeMillis);
            }
        }

        // 正常情况下,无限循环等待消息
        Looper.loop();
        throw new RuntimeException("Main thread loop unexpectedly exited");// 抛出异常
    }

2.7.1 SystemServer.performPendingShutdown

检查上次关机是否失败

    private void performPendingShutdown() {
        final String shutdownAction = SystemProperties.get(
                ShutdownThread.SHUTDOWN_ACTION_PROPERTY, "");
        if (shutdownAction != null && shutdownAction.length() > 0) {
            boolean reboot = (shutdownAction.charAt(0) == '1');

            final String reason;
            if (shutdownAction.length() > 1) {
                reason = shutdownAction.substring(1, shutdownAction.length());
            } else {
                reason = null;
            }

            if (reason != null && reason.startsWith(PowerManager.REBOOT_RECOVERY_UPDATE)) {
                File packageFile = new File(UNCRYPT_PACKAGE_FILE);
                if (packageFile.exists()) {
                    String filename = null;
                    try {
                        filename = FileUtils.readTextFile(packageFile, 0, null);
                    } catch (IOException e) {
                        Slog.e(TAG, "Error reading uncrypt package file", e);
                    }

                    if (filename != null && filename.startsWith("/data")) {
                        if (!new File(BLOCK_MAP_FILE).exists()) {
                            Slog.e(TAG, "Can't find block map file, uncrypt failed or " +
                                      "unexpected runtime restart?");
                            return;
                        }
                    }
                }
            }
            // 当"sys.shutdown.requested"值不为空,也就是上次关机失败会导致重启或者关机
            ShutdownThread.rebootOrShutdown(null, reboot, reason);
        }
    }

2.7.2 SystemServer.startBootstrapServices

在这里初始化的服务都是具有复杂的相互依赖关系。这里服务的启动顺序为:

  1. Installer
  2. DeviceIdentifiersPolicyService
  3. ActivityManagerService.Lifecycle
  4. PowerManagerService
  5. RecoverySystemService
  6. LightsService
  7. DisplayManagerService
  8. 等待1-7 服务启动完毕(onBootPhase:PHASE_WAIT_FOR_DEFAULT_DISPLAY)
  9. 设备支持时:RegionalizationService
  10. PackageManagerService
  11. UserManagerService
  12. 初始化AttributeCache
  13. OverlayManagerService
  14. startSensorService,启动Sensor服务
    private void startBootstrapServices() {
        Slog.i(TAG, "Reading configuration...");// 在android.log输出:"I SystemServer: Reading configuration..."
        final String TAG_SYSTEM_CONFIG = "ReadingSystemConfig";

        traceBeginAndSlog(TAG_SYSTEM_CONFIG);// 在android.log输出:"I SystemServer: ReadingSystemConfig"
        SystemServerInitThreadPool.get().submit(SystemConfig::getInstance, TAG_SYSTEM_CONFIG);
        traceEnd();

        // 等待installd完成启动,以便它有机会创建具有适当权限的关键目录,如/ data / user。
        // 在初始化其他服务之前,需要完成这个工作。
        traceBeginAndSlog("StartInstaller");
        Installer installer = mSystemServiceManager.startService(Installer.class);
        traceEnd();

        // 在某些情况下,启动应用程序后,我们需要访问设备标识符,因此在活动管理器之前注册设备标识符策略服务。
        traceBeginAndSlog("DeviceIdentifiersPolicyService");
        mSystemServiceManager.startService(DeviceIdentifiersPolicyService.class);
        traceEnd();

        // 启动AMS
        traceBeginAndSlog("StartActivityManager");
        mActivityManagerService = mSystemServiceManager.startService(
                ActivityManagerService.Lifecycle.class).getService();
        mActivityManagerService.setSystemServiceManager(mSystemServiceManager);
        mActivityManagerService.setInstaller(installer);
        traceEnd();

        // 电源管理器需要尽早启动,因为其他服务需要它。
        // 本地守护进程可能正在注册,因此它必须准备好立即处理传入的绑定程序调用(包括能够验证这些调用的权限)。
        traceBeginAndSlog("StartPowerManager");
        mPowerManagerService = mSystemServiceManager.startService(PowerManagerService.class);
        traceEnd();

        // 现在PowerManagerService已经启动,将其传入AMS
        traceBeginAndSlog("InitPowerManagement");
        mActivityManagerService.initPowerManagement();
        traceEnd();

        // 启动recovery系统服务
        if (!SystemProperties.getBoolean("config.disable_noncore", false)) {
            traceBeginAndSlog("StartRecoverySystemService");
            mSystemServiceManager.startService(RecoverySystemService.class);
            traceEnd();
        }

        // OS启动的基础已经搭好,但是接来下的启动可能会陷入死循环,这里检测预防这种情况
        RescueParty.noteBoot(mSystemContext);

        // 启动灯光管理服务
        traceBeginAndSlog("StartLightsService");
        mSystemServiceManager.startService(LightsService.class);
        traceEnd();

        // 启动显示管理服务,该服务需要在包管理服务前启动以提供相关服务
        traceBeginAndSlog("StartDisplayManager");
        mDisplayManagerService = mSystemServiceManager.startService(DisplayManagerService.class);
        traceEnd();

        // 等待显示管理服务启动完毕
        // mCurrentPhase = -1
        // Phase 100: 在初始化package manager之前,需要默认的显示.
        traceBeginAndSlog("WaitForDisplay");
        // 逐个调用已启动的服务的onBootPharse()方法,也就是等待mServices中各个服务启动完毕
        mSystemServiceManager.startBootPhase(SystemService.PHASE_WAIT_FOR_DEFAULT_DISPLAY);
        traceEnd();

        // 判断设备是否正在加密,是则仅运行核心
        String cryptState = SystemProperties.get("vold.decrypt");
        if (ENCRYPTING_STATE.equals(cryptState)) {
            Slog.w(TAG, "Detected encryption in progress - only parsing core apps");
            mOnlyCore = true;
        } else if (ENCRYPTED_STATE.equals(cryptState)) {
            Slog.w(TAG, "Device encrypted - only parsing core apps");
            mOnlyCore = true;
        }
        // 设备支持的情况下,启动RegionalizationService
        if (RegionalizationEnvironment.isSupported()) {
            Slog.i(TAG, "Regionalization Service");
            RegionalizationService regionalizationService = new RegionalizationService();
            ServiceManager.addService("regionalization", regionalizationService);
        }

        // 初始化包管理服务
        if (!mRuntimeRestart) {
            // 非Runtime重启时进入,输出event.log:"sysui_histogram: [boot_package_manager_init_start,11998]"
            MetricsLogger.histogram(null, "boot_package_manager_init_start",
                    (int) SystemClock.elapsedRealtime());
        }
        traceBeginAndSlog("StartPackageManagerService");
        // 启动PackageManagerService
        mPackageManagerService = PackageManagerService.main(mSystemContext, installer,
                mFactoryTestMode != FactoryTest.FACTORY_TEST_OFF, mOnlyCore);
        mFirstBoot = mPackageManagerService.isFirstBoot();
        mPackageManager = mSystemContext.getPackageManager();
        traceEnd();
        if (!mRuntimeRestart && !isFirstBootOrUpgrade()) {
            // 非Runtime重启或者非第一次启动或更新时进入,输出event.log:"sysui_histogram: [boot_package_manager_init_ready,13942]"
            MetricsLogger.histogram(null, "boot_package_manager_init_ready",
                    (int) SystemClock.elapsedRealtime());
        }
        // 管理A / B OTA dexopting。这是一个引导程序服务,需要它在引导之后重命名A / B工件,在其他任何可能碰到/需要它们之前。
        // 注意:这在解密过程中不需要(反正我们没有/data)
        if (!mOnlyCore) {
            boolean disableOtaDexopt = SystemProperties.getBoolean("config.disable_otadexopt",
                    false);
            if (!disableOtaDexopt) {
                traceBeginAndSlog("StartOtaDexOptService");
                try {
                    OtaDexoptService.main(mSystemContext, mPackageManagerService);
                } catch (Throwable e) {
                    reportWtf("starting OtaDexOptService", e);
                } finally {
                    traceEnd();
                }
            }
        }
        // 启动UserManagerService
        traceBeginAndSlog("StartUserManagerService");
        mSystemServiceManager.startService(UserManagerService.LifeCycle.class);
        traceEnd();

        // 初始化属性缓存,用于缓存来自包的资源
        traceBeginAndSlog("InitAttributerCache");
        AttributeCache.init(mSystemContext);
        traceEnd();

        // 设置系统进程的应用程序实例
        traceBeginAndSlog("SetSystemProcess");
        mActivityManagerService.setSystemProcess();
        traceEnd();

        // 因为AMS.setSystemProcess() 会覆盖策略,所以
        // DisplayManagerService需要设置android.display调度相关的策略
        mDisplayManagerService.setupSchedulerPolicies();

        // 启动OverlayManagerService,管理覆盖包
        traceBeginAndSlog("StartOverlayManagerService");
        mSystemServiceManager.startService(new OverlayManagerService(mSystemContext, installer));
        traceEnd();

        // 传感器服务需要访问PackageManagerService,AppOps和Permissions Service,因此我们在它们之后启动它
        // 启动传感器服务在一个单独的线程中,使用前应检查完成情况。
        mSensorServiceStart = SystemServerInitThreadPool.get().submit(() -> {
            BootTimingsTraceLog traceLog = new BootTimingsTraceLog(
                    SYSTEM_SERVER_TIMING_ASYNC_TAG, Trace.TRACE_TAG_SYSTEM_SERVER);
            traceLog.traceBegin(START_SENSOR_SERVICE);
            startSensorService();
            traceLog.traceEnd();
        }, START_SENSOR_SERVICE);
    }

2.7.3 SystemServer.startCoreServices

启动一些核心但依赖度低的服务,这里服务的启动顺序为:

  1. DropBoxManagerService
  2. BatteryService
  3. UsageStatsService
  4. WebViewUpdateService
    private void startCoreServices() {
        // 启动DropBoxManagerService,记录errors和logs
        traceBeginAndSlog("StartDropBoxManager");
        mSystemServiceManager.startService(DropBoxManagerService.class);
        traceEnd();
        
        // 启动电池管理服务,要求LightService启动完毕
        traceBeginAndSlog("StartBatteryService");
        mSystemServiceManager.startService(BatteryService.class);
        traceEnd();

        // 启动UsageStatsService,这是一个Android私有service,主要作用是收集用户使用每一个APP的频率、使用时常
        traceBeginAndSlog("StartUsageService");
        mSystemServiceManager.startService(UsageStatsService.class);
        mActivityManagerService.setUsageStatsManager(
                LocalServices.getService(UsageStatsManagerInternal.class));
        traceEnd();

        // 启动WebViewUpdateService,该服务跟踪可更新的WebView是否处于就绪状态并观察更新安装
        traceBeginAndSlog("StartWebViewUpdateService");
        mWebViewUpdateService = mSystemServiceManager.startService(WebViewUpdateService.class);
        traceEnd();
    }

2.7.4 SystemServer.startOtherServices

这一步的最后操作是调用AMS.systemReady,最后进入PHASE_BOOT_COMPLETED阶段,最终进入Looper.loop()无线循环。
代码较长,省略部分代码:

    private void startOtherServices() {
            ......
            mContentResolver = context.getContentResolver();// Resolve
            ......
            // AccountManagerService必须在ContentService之前启动
            traceBeginAndSlog("StartAccountManagerService");
            mSystemServiceManager.startService(ACCOUNT_SERVICE_CLASS);
            traceEnd();

            traceBeginAndSlog("StartContentService");
            mSystemServiceManager.startService(CONTENT_SERVICE_CLASS);
            traceEnd();

            traceBeginAndSlog("InstallSystemProviders"); // Provider
            mActivityManagerService.installSystemProviders();
            traceEnd();
            ......
            traceBeginAndSlog("StartAlarmManagerService");
            mSystemServiceManager.startService(AlarmManagerService.class);//AlarmManagerService
            traceEnd();

            traceBeginAndSlog("InitWatchdog");
            final Watchdog watchdog = Watchdog.getInstance();
            watchdog.init(context, mActivityManagerService);// 初始化WatchDog
            traceEnd();

            traceBeginAndSlog("StartInputManagerService");
            inputManager = new InputManagerService(context);// Input
            traceEnd();

            traceBeginAndSlog("StartWindowManagerService");
            // 注意!!!WMS的启动需要SensorService启动完毕,这里可能会发生等待
            ConcurrentUtils.waitForFutureNoInterrupt(mSensorServiceStart, START_SENSOR_SERVICE);
            mSensorServiceStart = null;
            wm = WindowManagerService.main(context, inputManager,
                    mFactoryTestMode != FactoryTest.FACTORY_TEST_LOW_LEVEL,
                    !mFirstBoot, mOnlyCore, new PhoneWindowManager());  //启动 WMS

            ServiceManager.addService(Context.WINDOW_SERVICE, wm);
            ServiceManager.addService(Context.INPUT_SERVICE, inputManager);
            traceEnd();
            ......
        // Phase 480 和 Phase 500
        traceBeginAndSlog("StartBootPhaseLockSettingsReady");
        mSystemServiceManager.startBootPhase(SystemService.PHASE_LOCK_SETTINGS_READY);
        traceEnd();

        traceBeginAndSlog("StartBootPhaseSystemServicesReady");
        mSystemServiceManager.startBootPhase(SystemService.PHASE_SYSTEM_SERVICES_READY);
        traceEnd();
        ......
            wm.systemReady();
        ......
            mPowerManagerService.systemReady(mActivityManagerService.getAppOpsService());    
        ......
            mPackageManagerService.systemReady();
        ......
            mDisplayManagerService.systemReady(safeMode, mOnlyCore);
        ......
        mActivityManagerService.systemReady(() -> {
            Slog.i(TAG, "Making services ready");
            traceBeginAndSlog("StartActivityManagerReadyPhase");
            mSystemServiceManager.startBootPhase(
                    SystemService.PHASE_ACTIVITY_MANAGER_READY);
            traceEnd();
            ......
            traceBeginAndSlog("PhaseThirdPartyAppsCanStart");
            // confirm webview completion before starting 3rd party
            if (webviewPrep != null) {
                ConcurrentUtils.waitForFutureNoInterrupt(webviewPrep, WEBVIEW_PREPARATION);
            }
            // Phase 600
            mSystemServiceManager.startBootPhase(
                    SystemService.PHASE_THIRD_PARTY_APPS_CAN_START);
            traceEnd();
            ......
        }, BOOT_TIMINGS_TRACE_LOG);
    }

三、服务类别

引导服务(12):
1.1. Installer
1.2. DeviceIdentifiersPolicyService
1.3. ActivityManagerService.Lifecycle
1.4. PowerManagerService
1.5. RecoverySystemService
1.6. LightsService
1.7. DisplayManagerService
1.8. 设备支持时:RegionalizationService
1.9. PackageManagerService
1.10. UserManagerService
1.11. OverlayManagerService
1.12. SensorService

核心服务(4)
2.1. DropBoxManagerService
2.2. BatteryService
2.3. UsageStatsService
2.4. WebViewUpdateService

其他服务(70+)
AlarmManagerService、AccountManagerService、ContentService、InputManagerService、WindowManagerService…
ActivityManagerService PackageManagerService WindowManagerService
PowerManagerService BatteryService BatteryStatsService
DreamManagerService DropBoxManagerService SamplingProfilerService
UsageStatsService DiskStatsService DeviceStorageMonitorService
SchedulingPolicyService AlarmManagerService DeviceIdleController
ThermalObserver JobSchedulerService AccessibilityManagerService
DisplayManagerService LightsService GraphicsStatsService
StatusBarManagerService NotificationManagerService WallpaperManagerService
UiModeManagerService AppWidgetService LauncherAppsService
TextServicesManagerService ContentService LockSettingsService
InputMethodManagerService InputManagerService MountService
FingerprintService TvInputManagerService DockObserver
NetworkManagementService NetworkScoreService NetworkStatsService
NetworkPolicyManagerService ConnectivityService BluetoothService
WifiP2pService WifiService WifiScanningService
AudioService MediaRouterService VoiceInteractionManagerService
MediaProjectionManagerService MediaSessionService RegionalizationService
DevicePolicyManagerService PrintManagerService BackupManagerService
UserManagerService AccountManagerService TrustManagerService
SensorService LocationManagerService VibratorService
CountryDetectorService GestureLauncherService PersistentDataBlockService
EthernetService WebViewUpdateService ClipboardService
TelephonyRegistry TelecomLoaderService NsdService
UpdateLockService SerialService SearchManagerService
CommonTimeManagementService AssetAtlasService ConsumerIrService
MidiServiceCameraService TwilightService RestrictionsManagerService
MmsServiceBroker RttService UsbService

文章转载:
Android开机流程(一)

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